Thursday, 28 September 2017

The Duke of Buckingham's clothes for Paris, 1625.



Those who watched the recent BBC programme where a portrait of the Duke of Buckingham was identified as having been painted by Rubens in 1625 – and even those who didn’t, may be interested in this contemporary report of what Buckingham wore when he went on King Charles I’s behalf to Paris in 1625. The portrait to the right is not the Rubens portrait but one of the same date by Michiel J. van Miereveld, now in the Art Gallery of South Australia.

When James I died in March 1625 negotiations were already underway for a marriage between Charles and Princess Henrietta Maria of France. The marriage, with the Duc de Chevreuse (Claude de Guise) acting as proxy for Charles, took place at Notre Dame in May 1625. Charles sent Buckingham to Paris to bring the new queen back to England. 

In the State Papers the report of Buckingham’s clothes is actually described as “a singular specimen of the luxurious magnificence of that great favourite.” It also tells us to a certain extent about the clothes provided to his entourage. 

“His Grace hath for his body, twenty seven rich suits embroidered and laced with silk and silver plushes; besides one rich white satin uncut velvet suit, set all over, both suit and cloak, with diamonds, the value whereof is thought to be worth fourscore thousand pounds, besides a feather made of great diamonds; with sword, girdle, hatband and spurs with diamonds, which suit his Grace intends to enter Paris with. Another rich suit is of purple satin, embroidered all over with rich orient pearls; the cloak made after the Spanish fashion, with all things suitable, the value whereof will be £20,000 and this is thought shall be for the wedding day in Paris. His other suits are all as rich as invention can frame, or art fashion. His colours [that is for his entourage] for the entrance are white pwatchett, and for the wedding crimson and gold.

Three rich suits apiece,

Twenty privy gentlemen; seven grooms of his chamber; thirty Chief Yeomen; two master cooks.

Of his own servants for the household,

Twenty five second cooks; fourteen Yeomen of the second rank, seventeen grooms to them; forty five labourers selletters belonging to the kitchen, twelve pages, three rich suits apiece; twenty four footmen, three rich suits and two rich coats apiece; six huntsmen two rich suits apiece, twelve Grooms one suit apiece, six Riders one suit apiece, besides eight others to attend the stable business.
Three rich velvet coaches inside; without with gold lace all over; eight horses in each coach and six coachmen richly suited; eight score musicians richly suited; twenty two watermen suited in sky coloured taffety, all gilded with anchors, and my Lord’s arms; all these to row in one barge of my Lord’s. All these servants have everything suitable, all being at his Grace’s charge.”

From: Miscellaneous state papers: from 1501-1726, Volume 1, p.571-2

Tuesday, 12 September 2017

Embroidered jackets or waistcoats – surviving examples


Detail from the 1610-20 example at Platt Hall, Manchester

The fashion for women to wear embroidered jackets or waistcoats appears at the end of the sixteenth century and goes through to at least the middle of the seventeenth century. From the middle of the seventeenth century and on into the eighteenth the embroidered jacket or waistcoat disappears from portraiture, and the garment itself becomes an under garment worn for warmth and often quilted, though it loses its sleeves. 

The examples I link to below are by no means a complete listing, but I have put them into date order, or at least ordered by the dates the museums that hold them give for them. The dates are pretty fluid and often change depending on who is describing the item. In many cases I indicate printed sources where you can find further information.

The photographs are mine and are therefore usually taken through glass, my apologies for the quality.

1590-1630 Victoria and Albert Museum. Coloured silk embroidery on linen. A coiling deign of flowers and leaves. Melanie Braun,  'Embroidered Linen Jacket', in North, Susan and Jenny Tiramani, eds, Seventeenth-Century Women’s Dress Patterns, vol.2, London: V&A Publishing, 2012, pp.48-57 https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O80226/jacket-unknown/

1600-1610. Museum of Fashion, Bath.  Coloured silk and metal thread embroidery on linen. A coiling pattern of flowers and leaves. I have found it difficult to find images online as the museum does not have an object search as such. https://www.fashionmuseum.co.uk/sites/fashion_museum/files/embroidered-waistcoat-fashion-museum-bath.jpg

1600-25. Victoria and Albert Museum. Coloured silk thread embroidery on ivory silk with a slightly, coiling, slightly interlaced design of roses, honeysuckle and other flowers. John Lea Nevinson, Catalogue of English Domestic Embroidery of the Sixteenth & Seventeenth Centuries, Victoria and Albert Museum, Department of Textiles, London: HMSO, 1938, p.79, plate LV. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O115772/jacket-unknown/

The back of the Worthing Museum example
1600-25. Victoria and Albert Museum. Coloured silk and silver gilt thread embroidery, with spangles, on a linen fabric. A coiling design with flowers, birds and butterflies.  Avril Hart and Susan North, Historical Fashion in Detail: the 17th and 18th centuries, V&A Publications, 1998, p.148 & 149 John Lea Nevinson, Catalogue of English Domestic Embroidery of the Sixteenth & Seventeenth Centuries, Victoria and Albert Museum, Department of Textiles, London: HMSO, 1938, p.78. Avril Hart and Susan North, Historical Fashion in Detail: the 17th and 18th centuries, V&A Publications, 1998, p.148 & 149 https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O15345/jacket-unknown/

1600-1615. Worthing Museum. Blackwork silk on linen. Nothing on the Worthing Museum website, though it is mentioned fleetingly here http://www.culture24.org.uk/art/architecture-and-design/art63118

1600-1620. Norwich Museums. Unmade garment. Coloured silk on linen, with a pattern of roses in circles, and borage(?) flowers. See my photograph. 
The Norwich Museums unmade example

1610-1615. Victoria and Albert Museum. The Margaret Layton jacket. Coloured silk and metal thread on linen with spangles. A coiling design of flowers fruit and insects. Thornton, Claire, 'Margaret Layton's Waistcoat', in North, Susan and Jenny Tiramani, eds, Seventeenth-Century Women’s Dress Patterns, vol.1, London: V&A Publishing, 2011, pp.22-33. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O11095/jacket-unknown/

1610-1615. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Mass. Silver and gilt-silver thread embroidery on linen, with a coiling patterns of daffodils. http://www.mfa.org/collections/object/womans-jacket-116779

1610-1620. Burrell Collection, Glasgow. Coloured silk and metal thread embroidery on linen in a coiling design of flowers and insects. Janet Arnold, Patterns of fashion c.1560-1620. Macmillan, 1983. p.51 & 120-121. The link is to a short film on jacket and the Burrell’s recreation of it. http://www.glasgowlife.org.uk/museums/burrell-collection/the-collection/Pages/gilt-and-silk.aspx


1610-1620. Platt Hall Gallery, Manchester. Coloured silks on linen with spangles, and an open scrolling design of vines and grapes.   http://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/search/collection/?id=2001.131

1610-20.  Museum of London. A wool thread blackwork embroidered on linen, in a pattern of barberries. Zillah Halls, Women’s costume 1600-1750, Museum of London, HMSO. 1970, p31, Plates 1 & 2.  https://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk/online/object/84662.html


1610-20.  Museum of London. Silk blackwork embroidery on linen with a pattern of strawberries and strawberry leaves. Zillah Halls, Women’s costume 1600-1750, Museum of London, HMSO. 1970, p31. https://collections.museumoflondon.org.uk/online/object/84660.html

1610-1620. Victoria and Albert Museum.  Blue embroidery on pink silk with silver spangles, in a coiling design.  Jenny Tiramani,  'Pink Silk Waistcoat', in North, Susan and Jenny Tiramani, eds, Seventeenth-Century Women’s Dress Patterns, vol.1, London: V&A Publishing, 2011, pp.34-47 https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O354860/waistcoat-unknown/

1615-1620. Victoria and Albert Museum. Silk blackwork embroidery on linen fabric. A coiling design of flower, animal and insect motifs. Susan North, "The Falkland Jacket: Sources, Provenance and Interpretation of an Emblematic Artifact", Emblematica, vol 14, 2005, pp.127-151. Avril Hart and Susan North, Historical Fashion in Detail: the 17th and 18th centuries, London: V&A, 1998, p. 148  https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O137739/jacket-unknown/

c.1616. Metropolitan Museum, New York. Coloured silk and metal thread embroidery on a linen fabric, with a coiling design on flowers, birds and insects. http://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/81132

c. 1620. Maidstone Museum and Art Gallery. Red silk embroidery on linen in a design of coiling peapods. https://i.pinimg.com/originals/3e/fd/6f/3efd6f2258bad240314403c994161beb.jpg

1620-25. Victoria and Albert Museum. A silk thread blackwork embroidered on linen. A coiling design of flowers interspersed with insects and birds. Luca Costigliolo,, 'Blackwork waistcoat', in North, Susan and Jenny Tiramani, eds, Seventeenth-Century Women’s Dress Patterns, vol.1, London: V&A Publishing, 2011, pp.48-59 https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O110094/waistcoat-unknown/

1620-1640. Victoria and Albert Museum. One panel only from a waistcoat.  Coloured silk embroidery on linen. A coiling pattern of strawberries.  John Lea Nevinson, Catalogue of English Domestic Embroidery of the Sixteenth & Seventeenth Centuries, Victoria and Albert Museum, Department of Textiles, London: HMSO, 1938, p.78 https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O115757/jacket-part-unknown/

1620-1625. Platt Hall Gallery of Costume, Manchester.  Black silk, blackwork on linen, with a design of strapwork bands with flower motifs between. http://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/search/collection/?id=2003.66
Detail of the 1625-40 Platt Hall example

1625-1640 Platt Hall Gallery of Costume, Manchester.  Silver thread embroidery and spangles on a  linen ground with an abstract coiling design. http://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/search/collection/?id=1956.64

1630-1640.  Victoria and Albert Museum. Silver thread embroidery and spangles on fustian. The design is a meandering pattern. Tiramani, Jenny, 'Fustian Waistcoat', in North, Susan and Jenny Tiramani, eds, Seventeenth-Century Women’s Dress Patterns, vol.1, London: V&A Publishing, 2011, pp.60-69 https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O101730/waistcoat-unknown/

1630-1640.  Victoria and Albert Museum. Drawn-thread-and-pulled-fabric work on linen, decorated with spangles. Hart, Avril and Susan North, Historical Fashion in Detail: the 17th and 18th centuries, London: V&A, 1998, p. 196  https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O130595/waistcoat-unknown/

1630-1640.  Victoria and Albert Museum. Red wool embroidery on linen, with some white linen thread embroidery as well. Large very stylised floral motifs. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O115768/waistcoat-unknown/

1640. Victoria and Albert Museum. Red wool embroidery on a linen warf/wool weft fabric [linsey wolsey]. Individual motifs of flowers and birds. Avril Hart and Susan North, Historical Fashion in Detail: the 17th and 18th centuries. London: V&A Publications, 1998, p.150. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O110107/waistcoat-unknown/

Detail of the painted cotton example
1670-1700. JUST TO CONFUSE EVERYONE. Not embroidered. A painted cotton calico jacket in imitation of the embroidered examples. http://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/search/collection/?id=2004.93
 
1680-1720 Platt Hall Gallery of Costume. Yellow silk embroidery on linen with a design of nterlacing circular arabesques enclosing three-leaf sprigs. Museum does not have an image.  http://manchesterartgallery.org/collections/search/collection/?id=1953.64

c. 1700 Philadelphia Museum of Art. A sleeveless waistcoat, quilted with silk embroidery in a vine pattern on a cotton fabric with a linen lining. https://www.philamuseum.org/collections/permanent/89987.html?mulR=1844835644|5

c.1700 Museum of Fashion, Bath. Coloured silk embroidery on linen, quilted. A sleeveless waistcoat, with a tree of life type motif and birds resembling cranes. https://www.fashionmuseum.co.uk/sites/fashion_museum/files/styles/gallery_item_colorbox/public/HFx100%20ID%206%201700%20Fashion%20Museum%20Bath%20portrait%20shot.jpg?itok=b405q8za

1700s. Victoria and Albert Museum. Coloured silk embroidery on linen, quilted, with a very open design of stylised flowers. https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O354306/waistcoat-unknown/

1700s Victoria and Albert Museum. One panel from a woman’s waistcoat. Coloured silk embroidery on linen, in a very open scrolling pattern.  https://collections.vam.ac.uk/item/O319127/waistcoat-panel-unknown/

1700-1750. Phoenix Museum of Art. A sleeveless waistcoat, coloured silk embroidery on linen with floral motifs.http://egallery.phxart.org/view/objects/asitem/items$0040:9482

1730s Glasgow Museums. A sleeveless waistcoat or underbodice, cotton quilted with white cotton thread and embroidered in coloured silk threads with stylised floral motifs.  http://collections.glasgowmuseums.com/starobject.html?oid=37519

Tuesday, 22 August 2017

Stockings in the Seventeenth Century



Terminology

Gustavus Adolphus boothose in the Livrustkammaren 
We speak of stockings and that term was certainly used in the seventeenth century, but other terms were also being used, and as the meaning of words changed it is sometimes difficult to understand precisely what is being talked about. Hose, from which we get the term hosiery, originally referred to something that covered the entire leg. Once breeches appear the term hose can be used to indicate either the stockings or the breeches, so as late at 1647 there are references to pockets in hose. (OED, 2017) There are also references to upper stocks, meaning the breeches, and nether stocks, meaning the stockings. Knit is another complicated word, which can mean simply tied or knotted, rather than knitted; so each reference has to be looked at in context.

Origins of knitting

The history of knitting is a complex and difficult one to disentangle, not least because earlier techniques like nalebinding, a form of sewn looped textile, can be confused with knitting, but it is generally assumed it started in the middle east around 1000AD (Rutt, 1987). By the mid sixteenth century knitted hose is mentioned often and examples are found in graves all over Europe, and not just those of the upper classes, though they tend to predominate. The best known are probably the scarlet silk knitted stockings of Elenora de Toledo who died in 1562. 

The sixteenth century

In sixteenth century England stockings were already being made of worsted thread as well as silk, and even Queen Elizabeth wore them, being first supplied with Norwich worsted yarn hose in 1576. When she visited Norwich in 1578 there was a pageant, and on the stage were “small women children” spinning worsted at one end of the stage with more knitting the hose at the other end. (Arnold, 1988). By 1583 when Philip Stubbs published his Anatomy of Abuses, he was complaining that, “every one almost, though otherwise very poor, having scarce forty shillings of wages by the year will not stick to have two or three pair of these silk nether stocks, or else of the finest Yarn”. This is obviously an exaggeration, but it points to how common knitted stockings were becoming.

Prices

The price of stockings varied considerably depending on the quality of the yarn, and also on the complexity of the pattern and decoration. Thirsk (1973) states a Kirby Lonsdale stocking dealer in 1578 had stockings valued between 7d and 22d a pair, while over a hundred year later in 1692 chapman Ann Clarke had stockings between 6d and 26d a pair (Spufford, 1984). These are, for want of a better term, working class stockings. Silk stockings were considerably more expensive; in 1647 James Master paid 19 shillings for green silk stockings  (Dalison, 1883 ). Interestingly it is not always the cheapest stockings that are given to the poor. In 1649-50 clothing given to the poor of St Giles, Cripplegate, London included a total of 60 pairs of stockings at 22d the pair (Saunders, 2006). The stockings for the New Model Army varied in price from 12d to 22d a pair depending on the contract. (Mungeam, 1969)

Materials

People might own both knit and cloth hose, for example the list of clothing given to a servant between 1580 and 1610 includes both “for knitting a pair of woollen hose for her 4d” and “for two pair of hose for her of the defendant’s own cloth.” (Anthony, 1980) Stubbs lists knitted stockings as being of “jarnsey (jersey), worsted, crewel, silk, thread and such like.” (Stubbes, 1583) Cloth hose could involve a wider variety of fabric; linen, worsted, fustian, kersey, silk and satin are all mentioned at various times. The Victoria and Albert Museum has a pair seventeenth century linen cloth hose with a simple embroidery around the triangular gusset at the ankle (this area is known as the clock), and up the rear seam. Because linen has less give than other fabrics, they are tightened at the ankle by lacing through fourteen pairs of eyelet holes. (Rothstein, 1984) In one six month period in 1635 King Charles received 24 pairs of fine linen boothose with welted tops, and 40 pairs of grey boothose, with no fabric specified. (Strong, 1980) Irish cloth stockings were particularly prized for their hardwearing qualities, and were recommended for those emigrating to the New World. William Wood in 1639 advised intending settlers that they were, “much more serviceable than knit ones”. (Poppy, 2003)

Colours

Subbs says that knit stockings where, “green, red, white, tawny and else what.” (Stubbes, 1583) In an inventory of 1619 the Earl of Dorset has stockings in black, white, green, purple, tawny, yellow, murrey, grass green, crimson, pearl and watchet (a greeny-blue), often the colour matched that of his suit. (MacTaggart, 1980) On the other hand poor children at Beecles in the 1630s were being issued with grey knitted hose. (Spufford, 1984)The fragments of whalers stockings found in graves dating from c.1614 to c.1660 at Smeerenburg contain blue, red, green and black. (Vons-Comis, 1987)

Decoration

From quite early on the patterns of knitted stockings could be quite complex. The 1562 Eleonora de Toledo stockings have a complex  pattern consisting of panels of double moss stitch and double garter stitch separated by narrow stripes of reversed stocking stitch and a central wale, the tops have a lozenge pattern, each diamond containing four eyelets, with a zigzag of purl to their top and bottom. (Orsi Landini, 1993). As well as decoration in the knitting itself the stockings could also be embroidered. The stockings in the grave of a daughter of Christian IV of Denmark, who died in 1628, were embroidered with metal threads on the outside of the stocking. The pattern over the cloaks shows a peacock with an outspread tail above a five petalled flower, the stalk of which continues down the foot with leaves and flower buds. (Ostergard, 1988)
Many knitted stockings, plain and patterned, had a false seam at the back, this could be made simply by knitting a purl stitch at the end of every round, though this is not always the case. The false seam could sometimes be quite complex in design. A seaman from the Spitsbergen burials wears two stockings which do not form a pair, one has a false seam, the other does not. (Vons-Comis, 1988)
Cloth hose could also be heavily embroidered. The embroidery was either around the clocks for stockings to be worn with shoes, or at the top for boothose. An example is the surviving linen boothose supposedly worn by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden at the Battle of Lutzen in 1632, the tops have an elaborate pattern of cornucopia, flowers and birds done in black silk and gold thread. (Rangstrom, 2002)

Make do and Mend

At all levels of society and for all types of stockings, darns, patches and repairs were made. By 1599 an English to Spanish language book has the phrase “Looke well to see if the stockings have any stitches broken in them.” (Minsheu, 1599) Queen Elizabeth’s accounts have references to “lengthening of a payer of white silk hose at the tooes with silke” and for “lengthenynge of a payer of silke knit hose in the feet and toppes.” (Arnold, 1988) The stockings of the Spitsbergen whaler were both darned especially at the knees, and both stockings are so patched under the foot it is impossible to see the original construction. (Vons-Comis, 1988) With the Gunnister stockings from a burial in Shetland at the end of the seventeenth century, both feet have been replaced, one with part of the leg of another stocking and the other with coarsely woven cloth. (Henshall, 1951-2)

Patterns

The earliest pattern for knitting stockings was published in Natura Exenterata in 1655, as Rutt (1987) says it is imcomplete and hard to follow, being three pages long written in a single sentence. Rutt has modernised the spelling and punctuated it, however it is still imcomplete as it stops just before the toe. Several costume historians and re-enactors have tried to create useable variations of this pattern and others, you can find these patterns online. Paterns for cloth hose change little, so they can be adapted from the patterns that appear in Thursfield (2001) and Mikhaila. (2006)

References

Anthony, I. 1980. Clothing given to a servant of the late sixteenth century in Wales. Costume. 1980, Vol. 14.
Arnold, J. ed. 1988. Queen Elizabeth's wardrobe unlock'd. Leeds : Maney, 1988.
Dalison, Mrs, transcriber. 1883 . The expense book of James Master, Esq., of Yotes Court, Mereworth, 1646-55. Archaeologia Cantiana. 1883 , Vol. 15.
Henshall, A and Maxwell, S. 1951-2. Clothing and other articles from a late 17th century grave at Gunnister, Shetland. Proceedings of the Society of Anitquaries of Scotland. 1951-2, Vol. 86.
MacTaggart, P and A. 1980. The rich wearing apparel of Richard, 3rd Earl of Dorset. Costume. 1980, Vol. 14.
Mikhaila, N. and Malcolm-Davies, Jane. 2006. The Tudor tailor. London : Batsford, 2006.
Minsheu, John. 1599. Pleasant dialogues in Spanish and English. 1599.
Mungeam, G. 1969. Contracts for the supply of equipment to the New Model Army in 1645. Journal of Arms and Armour Society. 1969, Vol. 6.
OED. 2017. Oxford English Dictionary Online. 2017.
Orsi Landini, R., Ricci, S and Westerman Bulgarella, M. eds. 1993. Moda alla corte dei Medici: Gli abiti restaurati di Cosimo, Eleonora e don Garzia. Firenze : Centro Di Cat, 1993.
Ostergard, E. 1988. The coffins of two royal children in Roskilde cathedral. [book auth.] P. and Wild J. eds. Walton. Textiles in northern archaeology. London : Archtype, 1988.
Poppy, P. 2003. Mary Ring: the clothing of an early American settler. Costume. 2003, Vol. 37.
Rangstrom, L. 2002. Modelejon manligt mode 1500 tal, 1600 tal, 1700 tal. Stockholm : Livrustkammaren, 2002.
Rothstein, R. ed. 1984. Four hundred years of fashion. London : Victoria and Albert Museum, 1984.
Rutt, R. 1987. A history of handknitting. London : Batsford, 1987.
Saunders, A. S. 2006. Provision of apparel for the poor in London, 1630-1680. Costume. 2006, Vol. 40.
Spufford, M. 1984. The great reclothing of rural England: petty chapmen and their wares in the seventeenth century. London : Hambledon Press, 1984.
Strong, R. 1980. Charles I's clothes for the years 1633 to 1635. Costume. 1980, Vol. 14.
Stubbes, P. 1583. The anatomie of abuses. 1583.
Thirsk, J. 1973. The fantasical folly of fashion: the English stocking knitting industry 1500-1700. Textile History and Economic History: essays in honour of Julia de Lacey Mann,. Manchester : Manchester University Press, , 1973.
Thursfield, S. 2001. The medieval tailor's assistant. Carlton : Bean, 2001.
Vons-Comis, S. 1988. Seventeenth century garments from grave 579, Zeeuwse Uitkijk, Spitsbergen. [book auth.] P Walton and J Wild. Textiles in northern archaeology. London : Archetype, 1988.
Vons-Comis, S.Y. 1987. Workman's clothing or burial garments?: seventeenth and eighteenth century clothing remains from Spitsbergen. Smeerenburg seminar: Report from a symposium presenting results from research into seventeenth century whaling in Spitsbergen. Oslo : Norsk Polarinstitutt, 1987.